It is believed that other religions originated in the world on the basis of the Vedas of Sanatan Dharma and that they propagated the knowledge contained in the Vedas by interpreting them in different languages to suit themselves. The Vedas are written on the basis of the knowledge imparted by God to the sages. That is why the Veda is called Shruti. Veda means knowledge.
The Vedas are a treasure trove of ancient knowledge. The Vedas mention the solution to every problem of human life. The Vedas are full of knowledge related to Brahma (God), deities, universe, astrology, mathematics, chemistry, medicine, nature, astronomy, geography, religious rules, history, rituals, etc.
The main Vedas of Hinduism are Rig Veda, Yajurveda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. According to the verses of Shatapatha Brahman, Agni, Vayu, Aditya, and Angira have obtained four Vedas by penance. The three Vedas (Rig Veda, Yajurveda, and Sama Veda) are believed to have originated from Agni, Vayu, Surya (Aditya), and Atharva Veda from Angira.
The Vedas are considered to be the most ancient books. Therefore, it is natural to associate the name of any person and place with the Vedas. From the words in Ramayana, Mahabharata, etc., people and places are named even today.
The Vedas are considered to be the oldest written document of human civilization. 28,000 manuscripts of the Vedas have been preserved at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune, India. It is said that 30 manuscripts of Rig Veda are very important in this. It has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. UNESCO has listed 30 manuscripts of the Rig Veda from 1800 to 1500 BC as cultural heritage.
Sub-Vedas of Vedas: – Ayurveda of Rig Veda, Dhanurveda of Yajurveda, Gandharva Veda of Sama Veda, and Sthapatya Veda of Atharva Veda is sub-Vedas.
The four divisions of the Veda – Rig Veda, Yajurveda, Sama Veda, and Atharva Veda. Rig-status, Yaju-transformation, Sam-dynamic, and Atharva-root. Rik is also called Dharma, Yuj is called Moksha, Sam is called the Kama, Atharva is also called Artha. On this basis, Dharmashastra, Arthashastra, Kamashastra, and Mokshashastra have been composed.
1. Rig Veda: –
Rik means to position and knowledge. The Rig Veda is considered to be the first Veda. This Veda is poetic. It has 1028 suktas in 10 mandals and 9 chapters. Which has 11,000 mantras. There are 5 branches of this Veda. Shakalpa, Vaskal, Ashvalayan, Shankhayan and Mandukayan are the five branches. It contains mantras related to geographical location and invocation of gods as well as much other knowledge.
The richa of the Rig Veda describes the prayers, hymns of the deities, and their position in the Devaloka. From this, information on hydrotherapy, pediatrics, psychiatry, and incense therapy can be obtained. In the tenth mandala of the Rig Veda, information about medicinal herbs is found.
It has knowledge of more than 125 medicines. Which is found in one hundred and seven places. Mon is specially described in medicine. There is also a story in the Rig Veda about the return of the sage Chyavan to his youth.
2. Yajurveda: –
The meaning of Yajurveda, Yatn Ju. Yaju. ‘Yat’ means dynamic and ‘Ju’ means sky. Apart from this, karma, the inspiration of the best karma, the method of yajna of Yajurveda, and the mantra used in yajna are mentioned in this Veda.
Yajurveda also describes the knowledge of the element along with the yajna. Elemental knowledge means mystical knowledge. This Veda is written in prose with knowledge of Brahman, soul, God, and matter. It contains prose mantras for the good process of Yajna. The two branches of this Veda are Shukla and Krishna.
Krishna: It is mentioned that Vaishampayan sage has a relationship with Krishna. Krishna also has four branches.
Shukla: Yajnavalkya sage is believed to be related to Shukla. Shukla has two branches. It has 40 chapters. In addition, all subjects of divine medicine and agricultural science are included in it.
3. Samveda –
Sam means transformation and music. There is also gentleness and worship. This Veda is also the musical form of the riches of the Rig Veda. The Sama Veda is a form of music. This Veda is considered the origin of musicology. In this Veda which has 1824 mantras, if 75 mantras are omitted, all the remaining mantras are taken from Rig Veda. It contains special mention of Savita, Agni, and Indra. This Veda has three branches and 75 riches.
4. Atharva Veda: –
Atharva means vibration and Atharva means vibration. Doing deeds superior to knowledge, which is to be taken in the worship of God, attains Moksha by acquiring unshakable wisdom. From this Veda, one gets knowledge of mystical knowledge, herbs, miracles, and Ayurveda, etc. There are 5687 mantras in its 20 chapters. It has eight sections, in which both the names Vedic and Metal Vedas are found.